The presentation of Parmenio as a foil to Alexander with Alexander always coming out as the bolder and wiser, as handed down by the Alexander historians, stands in sharp contrast with Polybius’ view that “only a share of the credit for the Macedonian conquest belongs to Alexander” (294). These qualities made Alexander the more willing he was encouraged by Parmenio, so Aristobulus tells us to form an attachment to a woman of such beauty and noble lineage." Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 2 While there is a robust tradition of Parmenio’s attempts to guide Alexander, this particular occasion is unique to Arrian, and it Meanwhile, the Persian satraps of Cilicia, Lydia, Hellespontine Phrygia and other territories had assembled at Zelea, near Dascylium. in southern Anatolia he defeated a much larger force under the direct command of Darius. Parmenio's death, having' been ordered by the Macedonians themselves as was that of Philotas, becomes a judicial execution. Journal Content. VIII. Parmenion, son of Philotas, was born early in the fourth century, probably in 400BC (he is stated as being 70 years old in 330BC), and so he was already a young man when Philip was born. By the time of Philip’s death he was the foremost general in Macedonia (after Philip, of course) and he continued to be held in high regard in the same position under Alexander until his death in 330BC. Alexander the great was studied under the Aristotle of Stagira, who was a Greek philosopher who pioneered systematic, … Parmenion was sent by Philip to secure a bridgehead in Asia in 336BC. If the old general had decided to rebel, Alexander would in all probability have been finished. Alexander made good use of the terrain in a battle, trying to find rough ground to prevent the chariots being used at Gaugamela. But Philip, becoming aware of this, went to Alexander's chamber, taking with him one of Alexander's friends and companions, Philotas the son of Parmenio,  and upbraided his son severely, and bitterly reviled him as ignoble and unworthy of his high estate, in that he desired to become the son-in-law of a man who was a Carian and a slave to a barbarian king. This army included a large force of Greek mercenaries led by Memnon of Rhodes. A lot of articles and theories on the conspiracy of Philotas, but very little about Parmenio's family and career before Alexander. Parmenio -onis). https://www.britannica.com/biography/Parmenio, Encyclopædia Iranica - Biography of Parmenio. Parmenion first appears in the history of Alexander on the day that Philip heard of his son’s birth. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies Journal Help. The smearing of Parmenion’s character was a cynical piece of media manipulation on the part of Alexander’s ‘press corps’. Book XVII Ch. L'onomastico si può festeggiare il 22 luglio in memoria di san Parmenio, diacono, martire in Persia sotto Decio. Next page: Pausanias the Assassin, © Copyright 2004-2016 - pothos.org Alexander The Great wanted to be both human and divine, he wanted to have supreme power over other human beings that could never be questioned.. Born in 356 B.C., to the powerful King Philip II and ambitious queen, Olympias (foreigner and 7-8th wife of Philip). Persone Along with Attalus and a force of around 10,000 men, Parmenion ‘liberated’ a number of Ionian cities, at least as far down the coast as Ephesus, before a Persian counter attack drove the Macedonians back to the Hellespont. As soon as Philotas was dead Alexander sent Parmenion’s friend Polydamus to Ecbatana, with sealed orders to the other commanders – Cleander, Sitalces, Agathon and Menidas – to kill the general. Parmenio presumably stayed with Alexander until he was instructed to take the major part of the army to Persepolis along the traditional carriage-way, while Alexander made a dash for the city through the mountains and the Persian Gates (Arrian, Anabasis 3.18.1; Curt., 5.3.16). Parmenion first appears in the history of Alexander on the day that Philip heard of his son’s birth. Though it is likely that Philotas was innocent, Alexander had Parmenio murdered. Alexander was able to adapt, such as at Gaugamela, when Parmenio needed help, or at Hydaspes, when he had to deal with Porus' war elephants. In midsummer 330 Alexander set out for the eastern provinces at a high speed via Rhagae (modern Rayy, near Tehrn) and the Caspian Gates, where he learned that Bessus, the satrap of Bactria, had deposed Darius. At the Battle of Issus in 333 B.C. duced above, between Alexander and Parmenio, the senior general whom the conqueror inherited from his father. In the confusion that followed Philip’s murder, he declared for Alexander and assisted in the murder of members of the faction opposed to Alexander. Even if the accusations were false, Alexander felt he had to remove Parmenion when Philotas was executed, for Parmenion at Ecbatana controlled a large military force, a vast quantity of treasure and Alexander’s logistic lifeline. During the campaign, Philotas, Parmenio’s son, was charged with conspiring to murder Alexander, tried, and put to death. Hence we find an account of a staid, unadventurous general who repeatedly gave Alexander advice which, if it wasn’t actually bad, at least went against the heroic image that Alexander wished to portray. (A third son, Hector, had died in an accident during the army’s stay in Egypt.) It is perhaps difficult to excuse Alexander for ordering the murder but to leave Parmenion alive would have been too great a risk. After Issus Parmenion hurried to Damascus to secure the Persian baggage train – from where he sent Barsine, the widow of Memnon, to become Alexander’s mistress. He was largely responsible for the planning and execution of the Macedonian invasion of Persia. Alexander defeated the forces of the Persian satraps of Asia Minor. Parmenio, (born c. 400 bc —died 330, Ecbatana, Media), Macedonian general usually considered the best officer in the service of Philip II and his son Alexander the Great. Già Filippo II aveva sperimentato le sue non comuni capacità di stratego in una vittoriosa campagna contro i Dardani (356) e poi nel primo tentativo macedone di porre il piede in Asia (336). Philotas, known as a friend of Alexander, tried to reconcile him to Philip after the mysterious affair of the negotiations with Pixodarus (Plut. Parmenióne (gr. Arrian’s account of Parmenio’s warning to Alexander at Persepolis is meant not only to evoke Herodotus’ account of Croesus and Cyrus, but also to critique Herodotus’ notion of endless reciprocity in history. During the reign of Philip, Parmenio won a great victory over the Illyrians (356). The Hellenistic Age chronicles the years 336 to 30 BCE, a period that witnessed the overlap of two of antiquity’s great civilizations, the Greek and the Roman. It is likely that it was at this time that Parmenion heard that his sons, Philotas and Nicanor, had been given command of the Companions and the hypaspists respectively – to help ease his conscience over Attalus, perhaps, and certainly to ensure his support for Alexander. “…The only proof of Philotas’ guilt appears to have been his failure to arrange an audience for Cebalinus or to inform Alexander … Alexa…  In addition Justin writes, "As he afterwards contemplated the wealth and display of … While Alexander went gallivanting along the coast of Asia Minor the old general took the baggage train and the rest of the army onto the Anatolian Plateau to secure the hinterland until Alexander came to meet him at Gordium. I am preparing an article about the men behind Alexander and although I have a lot of good books in my hands I stopped dead on Parmenio. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Corrections? During three great battles, Parmenion commanded the left wing (12,000 heavily armed Macedonians, 7,000 allies, and 5,000 mercenaries), while Alexander himself commanded the right wing, where Philotas was his right-hand man. (There is some debate as to whether there really was an established custom in Macedonia of slaying all a traitor’s family to prevent repercussions, as has been asserted in the past.). Daily Diodorus Vol. Parmenion acceded to the order, despite the fact that Attalus was his son-in-law – or at least he did nothing to prevent Attalus from being killed.