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christchurch earthquake sequence

While the anomaly peaked on February 18th, it was spread over a number of days prior to the earthquake. Many events in the 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence were sufficiently shallow and close to (or under) Christchurch to subject the city to very intense shaking (V: 1.7 g; H: 2.2 g). When the Darfield earthquake happened, many of us felt that Christchurch had dodged a bullet as the earthquake occurred at 4.35am on a Saturday morning and was centred about 40km west of the city centre, which helped lessen the human impact. According to GNS Scienceseismologists, the energy released in Christchurch was equivalent to … The iconic Anglican cathedral of Christchurch, N.Z., damaged by the earthquake that struck the city on Feb. 22, 2011. EARTHQUAKE SEQUENCE A magnitude7.1 earthquake struck the Canterbury region of New Zealands South Island on September 4, 2010; the epicenter was located near the town of Darfield, approximately 35 kilometers west of Christchurch on the previously unknown Greendale fault. Map of the central part of New Zealand's South Island depicting the intensity of shaking caused by the earthquake of Sept. 4, 2010, and the strong aftershock of Feb. 22, 2011. Author information: (1)Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand janet.spittlehouse@otago.ac.nz. A number of studies were undertaken post the sequence of earthquakes in Christchurch. The Canterbury earthquake sequence has to be examined as an example of New Zealand crisis management in action, he says. The aftershocks line up along a 100 kilometre fault zone that runs from west to east and extends into Christchurch itself. The 2010–2011 New Zealand earthquake sequence New Zealanders showed resilience in the aftermath of the quake that rocked Christchurch in autumn of 2010. ABSTRACT. An earthquake occurred in Christchurch on 14 February 2016 at 1:13 p.m. local time (00:13 UTC) and initially recorded as 5.9 on the Richter scale, but subsequently reviewed as 5.7. Sometimes it can take months to identify the sequence, as was the case with the 2010–2011 Canterbury Earthquake Sequence, comprising the September 2010 M 7.0 Darfield earthquake and its major aftershock, the February 2011 M6.2 Christchurch earthquake, and the Landers Sequence. PLEASE ENABLE JAVASCRIPT IN YOUR INTERNET OPTIONS. Time-lapse visualisations of the February 22 2011 and September 4 2010 earthquakes and … It was the country’s strongest tremor since the Wairarapa earthquake back in 1855 (magnitude 8.2–8.3). In March 2012 it was announced that because of additional damage it had sustained in the aftershocks, the Anglican cathedral was beyond repair and would be demolished. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Kate was on the ground for Tonkin + Taylor mapping land damage and providing critical engineering advice for the Earthquake Commission and NZ Government from the first aftershock. More than 1,000 New Zealand Defence Force personnel led the response, aided by more than 100 members of the Singaporean armed forces who were in New Zealand for a joint training exercise at the time of the quake. The Canterbury earthquake sequence has been a long-lived complex earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. (2006) 3,075; (2012 est.) Seismic hazard analysis for urban Christchurch accounting for the 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence. In September 2010 a strong earthquake struck Christchurch and its surrounding region; although there were no fatalities, the city suffered extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to 7.1) that struck on September 4, 2010, and the large, destructive aftershock (magnitude 6.3) that occurred on February 22, 2011. As a result, some seismologists have downplayed any direct association between the June 13 events and those of the main shock and February 22 aftershock. GNS Science says the Canterbury aftershock sequence is expected to last for some years until Christchurch returns to pre-2010 levels of earthquake activity. METHODS: The Canterbury Wellbeing Survey, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected adults aged ≥18 years resident in Christchurch, was repeated biannually from April 2013 until June 2017 and annually thereafter. Between September 2010 and the end of 2011, 4 major earthquakes and more than 11,200 aftershocks shook the residents of Christchurch and surrounding towns. Continuous observational monitoring of a study site in eastern Christchurch, New Zealand, following the 2010 M w 7.1 Darfield earthquake has recorded ten distinct liquefaction episodes in the mainshock–aftershock sequence. This morning has seen the next series of events in the now 16-month long Christchurch Earthquake sequence in New Zealand. The Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) is a longitudinal birth cohort study that has published four papers evaluating the psychological impacts of the earthquake sequence. Continuing aftershocks in the days after February 22 further weakened structures throughout the area, and portions of several suburbs had to be evacuated. Detailed liquefaction maps illustrating the extent and severity of liquefaction across Christchurch triggered by the sequence of earthquakes including multiple episodes of severe re-liquefaction are next presented. Policy under Vero. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. We have already had the Kaikoura earthquake since. The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. Jackson & Arizona are part of the generation of Christchurch children now know as 'the earthquake babies'. The earthquake struck the city of Christchurch in New Zealand on 22 February 2011. Christchurch including the depositional history of soils, their composition, age and groundwater regime are first discussed. Eddy Snook took a deep interest in quakes when the Christchurch earthquake sequence began in the months before the deadliest tremor occurred. Christchurch has undertaken many of these pre-event planning suggestions after the earthquake sequence. Although one of these events were large earthquakes (the largest is M=6.0), the shallow depth (6 km for the largest), proximity to the city and … The report titled Lessons from the Canterbury earthquake sequence provides a whole-of-government perspective on the lessons from the Government’s recovery efforts from the Canterbury earthquake disaster.DPMC serves the Executive, Governor-General, Prime Minister and Cabinet, through the provision of impartial advice and support. According to the NZ Earthquake Commission report, the chart shown here for Christchurch corresponds to the time of greatest anomaly in the ionosphere prior to the Christchurch earthquake. I would especially like to recognise the dedication of the team on the ground - they are doing a brilliant job. Tonkin + Taylor's Operations Manager for the Christchurch Earthquake Recovery Project, Shamus Wallace and his wife Lisa had two children after the earthquake sequence began. Other seismologists, however, suggested that stresses built up by these earlier temblors likely contributed to those of June 13, as well as to a series of shallow marine tremors ranging from magnitude 4.0 to magnitude 6.0 that shook the Christchurch area on December 23, 2011. Christchurch earthquake. Earthquake data from the portable instruments are used in conjunction with data from permanent GeoNet monitoring stations and portable instruments that had remained deployed following the M7.1 Darfield earthquake. Extensive vertical and horizontal ground movement caused considerable damage to buildings and land. For Christchurch, the positive results of a proactive approach (such as emergency preparedness, stringent building codes, community education) are evidenced in relation to the forces generated by the earthquake. The Canterbury earthquake sequence. The epicentres of each of these events, which possessed moment magnitudes of 5.6 and 6.3, were located some 10 km (6 miles) east of Christchurch at depths of 9 km (5.6 miles) and 7 km (4.4 miles), respectively. However, Christchurch is subject to issues on a different level to Haiti which affect its potential to bounce back. Modelling coordination in hospital emergency departments through … Half of Christchurch's urban roads had to be rebuilt, 30% of the sewerage system was damaged and 32 million litres of water were lost when a major crack opened up in the floor of the city's largest reservoir. The removal of wreckage and official damage assessments were ongoing. Prior evidence suggests that typically there is a greater presence of distress in people who had greater exposure to such events. Becker Pages 73-81 The plaintiffs lodged two claims with Vero. The 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence includes the 4 September 2010 Mw7.1 Darfield earthquake (e.g., Gledhill et al. The focus of this temblor was relatively shallow, however, occurring only 3 miles (5 km) beneath the surface of Heathcote Valley, a suburb of Christchurch located on the Banks Peninsula. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. * Earthquake rattles Christchurch early on Saturday morning "These sorts of small earthquakes are still higher than they were before the Canterbury earthquakes sequence started in 2010. The largest two earthquakes, magnitude (M) 7.1 on September 4th and the M 6.3 on February 22nd 2011 caused immediate and significant damage to the city of Christchurch. The February 2011 magnitude 6.2 Christchurch earthquake was triggered by the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake five months earlier. Christchurch and surrounding areas have experienced major earthquakes since a 7.1 magnitude earthquake on 4 September 2010. It was established that there was an increase in psychological distress in people who had been exposed to the Canterbury earthquakes. Earthquake swarms are different. Map showing recent earthquake activity in and around Christchurch, New Zealand. The day after the quake, Prime Minister John Key declared a state of national emergency in the quake area, expanding his government’s powers to coordinate rescue and recovery efforts. Canterbury earthquake sequence Mark C. Quigley 1 , Sarah Bastin 1 , and Brendon A. Bradley 2 1 Department of Geological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch 8014, New Zealand https://www.britannica.com/event/Christchurch-earthquakes-of-2010-2011, New Zealand History - Christchurch earthquake kills 185. Ongoing adverse mental health impact of the earthquake sequence in Christchurch, New Zealand. Time-lapse visualisations of the February 22 2011 and September 4 2010 earthquakes and … Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, also called Canterbury earthquakes, series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late December 2011. It is recorded as a magnitude 7.1 earthquake, but reached magnitude 9 at its epicentre. Tonkin + Taylor’s Virginie Lacrosse found people really “got it” when she likened geotechnical engineers to doctors. Because this aftershock was centred very close to Christchurch, it was much more destructive and resulted in the deaths of 185 people. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. Map showing recent earthquake activity in and around Christchurch, New Zealand. Damaged as a result of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence. 2A) (Gledhill et al., 2000, Robinson and McGinty, 2000) and generated up to MMI ~ 5 in Christchurch (Pettinga et al., 2001). 4.3.4. About six faults in total moved during the Darfield earthquake, which triggered a long sequence of aftershocks. New Zealand's GNS Science has stated that the earthquake was part of the aftershock sequence that has been occurring since the September magnitude-7.1 quake, however a seismologist from Geoscience Australia considers it a separate event given its location on a separate fault system. Appendix D: Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for Christchurch Soil Sites Report prepared by Bradley Seismic Ltd. Bradley, B. Christchurch’s city centre was hit particularly hard and was evacuated. Canterbury Earthquake Sequence ~15000 Case Histories 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 2020 (AUC) Year Model Published LPI Random Guess RW98 IB08 BI14 Mea06 Perfect Model AIJ01 Gea18 Finite-sample uncertainty shown via bootstrap simulations Given large data, small differences tend to be statistically significant 2.5 thand 97.5 Percentiles since the beginning of the Canterbury earthquakes sequence. The Canterbury earthquake sequence is an on-going earthquake sequence, which started with the M7.1 Darfield earthquake on 4 September 2010. Clock tower on … Christchurch City has experienced widespread damage, ongoing disruption and building demolitions resulting in many difficulties for the residents of the Christchurch area. Buildings and roads across the Christchurch region, which had been weakened by the September event and its aftershocks, were severely damaged or destroyed in the February event. The June 13 events were located farther east of the known extent of the Greendale Fault, and they appeared to have been generated by strike-slip faulting rather than by thrust faulting associated with the February 22 event. The sequence of many thousands of aftershocks that followed the magnitude 7.1 Darfield earthquake of 3 September 2010. About six faults in total moved during the Darfield earthquake, which triggered a long sequence of aftershocks. 10, 20 - 22 The main outcome paper evaluated 952 participants and reported that as exposure to earthquakes increased, there were increases in rates of major depression, other anxiety disorders and nicotine dependence, … Tonkin + Taylor's Canterbury Earthquake Recovery Programme Leader, John Leeves and liquefaction expert, Dr Sjoerd van Ballegooy reflect on the unprecedented liquefaction damage that devastated Greater Christchurch. He serves currently as the editor of Earth and life sciences, covering climatology, geology, zoology, and other topics that relate to... Woman surveying the damage to her home near Christchurch, close to the epicentre of the earthquake that struck New Zealand's South Island on Sept. 4, 2010. The liquefaction clean-up experience in Christchurch following the 2010-2011 earthquake sequence has emerged as a valuable case study to support further analysis and research on the coordination, management and costs of large volume deposition of fine TEC chart for Christchurch earthquake February 18th, 2011. The GeoNet map below shows the location of this series of events, which have occurred to the east of Christchurch:. Lyttelton sustained widespread damage to buildings, wharves, and other infrastructure. Other towns in the area around Christchurch were seriously affected, although fewer lives were lost. NOW 50% OFF! Efforts resumed the following day, however, after the building was secured. He had done his Master’s degree at Canterbury University in earthquake engineering, specifically, liquefaction potential for Christchurch. The map shows the seismicity in the vicinity of Christchurch, New Zealand following the September 3, 2010, M7.0, Darfield earthquake (yellow circles) and the February 21, 2011, M6.3, Christchurch earthquake (orange circles). All of the earthquakes occurred on previously The fault, later named the Greendale Fault, appeared about 50 to 56 miles (80 to 90 km) southeast of the boundary between the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates, and part of the fault became visible at the surface because of the earthquake. Property at Worsleys Road, Cracroft, Christchurch. Both the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals of Christchurch suffered serious damage. Hundreds of buildings in the central business district and some 10,000 dwellings were deemed to be unsalvageable, and it was expected that they would have to be demolished. Methods: The Canterbury Wellbeing Survey, a … In February 2011 Christchurch was struck by another, far more-damaging earthquake whose epicentre was located just a few miles from the city’s central business…, …region were struck by a strong earthquake on September 4, 2010—about magnitude 7, centred approximately 20 miles (30 km) west of the city. The severest of those events were the earthquake (magnitude from 7.0 to … There was more destruction of buildings as most buildings were already weakened by the original quake, and more liquefaction occurred as the crust was already broken. Christchurch was … On September 4, 2010, an M 7.0 earthquake struck 45 km (28 miles) west of Christchurch; dubbed the Darfield earthquake, it was the first in a more than year-long series of quakes that impacted the Canterbury region. focusing on five specific areas: Recovery Governance Arrangements, , Land Decisions, Recovery Legislation The earthquakes have had a devastating effect on the central city and the people of Christchurch and surrounding areas. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Swarms. GeoNet staff deployed portable earthquake recorders to collect information on the rich aftershock sequence of the earthquake. Although there were few serious injuries and no fatalities, the quake and its aftershocks (some of them severe) destroyed hundreds of buildings in the city and damaged…, …the epicentre of a strong earthquake (magnitude 6.3) that struck the Christchurch area on February 22, 2011. 15,000 families lost their homes and 8,000 families were permanently displaced. Often referred to as the Valentine's Day earthquake, it was centred in the sea off New Brighton at a depth of 15 kilometres (9.3 mi). Although some were rescued on the day of the quake, the search for others was suspended because it was thought that the remaining victims could not have survived; further, it was feared that the building’s remains were too unstable to be safe for rescue workers. At 12.51 p.m. on Tuesday 22 February 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake caused severe damage in Christchurch and Lyttelton, killing 185 people and injuring several thousand. Abstract Objective: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after‐shocks. 380,000) was hit by four major earthquakes and thousands of aftershocks. Rescue efforts were at times hampered, however, by the potential dangers posed by the aftershocks. A discussion of resilience and sustainability: Land use planning recovery from the Canterbury earthquake sequence, New Zealand W.S.A. Google Scholar | Crossref Hossain, L., and Kit, D. C., 2012. Earthquake Services Limited General Proceeding Property at Happy Home Road, Westmorland, Christchurch. The three M≥6.0 aftershocks included the devastating M6.3 Christchurch earthquake on 22 February 2011, which resulted in 185 deaths and extensive damage. The Canterbury Earthquake Sequence underscores the importance of capturing the impact of change in the short-term and medium-term seismicity rate in areas that have been recently impacted by an earthquake when performing seismic risk analysis. The aftershock’s depth and close proximity to Christchurch contributed to substantial shaking, surface cracking, and liquefaction (the conversion of soil into a fluidlike mass) in the city and surrounding area. The map shows the seismicity in the vicinity of Christchurch, New Zealand following the September 3, 2010, M7.0, Darfield earthquake (yellow circles) and the February 21, 2011, M6.3, Christchurch earthquake (orange circles). Christchurch earthquake. GeoNet staff deployed portable earthquake recorders to collect information on the rich aftershock sequence of the earthquake. Australia, Japan, Singapore, the United Kingdom, the United States, and other countries also sent hundreds of search-and-rescue workers. The repair and rebuilding of Canterbury continues and is expected to top $40 billion. This disaster has proven that in the worst of times, we see the best of New Zealand.”. Indeed, it was believed that by the time of the June 13 aftershocks, some 50,000 former residents of Christchurch had already moved permanently to other places in New Zealand or to Australia. Description of the Canterbury earthquake sequence and effects The Darfield earthquake of magnitude 7.1 occurred on 4 September 2010 at 4.35 a.m., causing damage to the immediate Darfield area, and as far away as the nearby city of Christchurch and the Kaiapoi township. Over the months that followed, it was established that more than 180 people had died in the quake; many of them had been killed outright as structures collapsed and debris fell in the streets, crushing cars and buses as well. (2)Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch… Updates? Pop. “On behalf of the Government and all New Zealanders, I would like to thank everyone from Tonkin and Taylor who pitched in and helped in the aftermath of the devastating Canterbury earthquake and continue to assist in the ongoing recovery. One claim has been accepted by Vero, Rescue workers blocking access to a collapsed building in central Christchurch, New Zealand, after the earthquake that struck February 22, 2011. The 2010-2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence produced multiple instances of large ground motion, both horizontal and vertical. YOU NEED JAVASCRIPT TO RUN THIS SITE. Ground water measurements from 1,000+ piezometers Airborne LIDAR and high resolution imagery following multiple Impromptu community efforts distributed food and helped dig out the property of affected residents. The earthquake The demise of the URM building stock in Christchurch during the 2010–2011 Canterbury earthquake sequence, Earthquake Spectra 30, 253 – 276. Although one of these events were large earthquakes (the largest is M=6.0), the shallow depth (6 km for the largest), proximity to the city and … OBJECTIVE: To track population mental wellbeing following the 2010/2011 Christchurch earthquakes and after-shocks. Spittlehouse JK(1), Joyce PR(2), Vierck E(2), Schluter PJ(3), Pearson JF(4). An estimated 100 or more people had been in the building at the time of the quake. earthquake sequence that began on 4 September 2010 This report synthesises the lessons captured from the . Thousands of smaller aftershocks occurred in the months that followed. 185 people lost their lives, over 7000 were injured. 3,000.…. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 2011) and three subsequent earthquakes of M w ≥ 5.9, most notably the 22 February 2011 M w 6.2 Christchurch earthquake (e.g., Kaiser Two large tremors struck the Christchurch metropolitan area during the early afternoon on June 13, 2011. The earthquake’s epicentre was near Lyttelton, just 10 km south-east of Christchurch’s central business district. The principal event, sometimes referred to as the Darfield earthquake, struck at 4:35 am on September 4, 2010. Despite aftershocks, the prevailing attitude was positive and people were eager to pick up the pieces and get on with their lives. Earthquake data from the portable instruments are used in conjunction with data from permanent GeoNet monitoring stations and portable instruments that had remained deployed following the M7.1 Darfield earthquake. One of the world's largest natural disasters. The plaintiffs entered into a settlement agreement with the defendant for a fixed sum. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2012) that resulted in 185 fatalities. The Christchurch earthquake sequence has been on-going since September 4th 2010. Click on image for larger PDF version. Natural disasters can create significant uncertainty for individuals and entire cities. After Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (2017) ©travelieu.com Christchurch, New Zealand Backdrop. Between September 2010 and December 2011, NZ's second largest city (pop. The earthquake’s epicentre was located some 25 miles (40 km) west of Christchurch near the town of Darfield, and the focus was located about 6 miles (10 km) beneath the surface. Beginning in September 2010, Christchurch has been shaken by a devastating sequence of earthquakes, stretching over 18 months. For Kate, there's one clear, key lesson to learn from the Christchurch earthquakes. Omissions? Canterbury Earthquake Sequence In the early hours of Saturday morning, September 4, 2010 a strong, shallow earthquake struck Christchurch marking the start of the Canterbury Earthquake Sequence (CES). The widespread and complex land damage across Canterbury needed to be explained to and understood by property owners. The first earthquake in September 2010 was the moment the ‘rubber hit the road’ for geotechnical engineer, Mike Jacka. Britannica Kids Holiday Bundle! The port town of Lyttelton, near the epicentre of the earthquake, sustained widespread damage to buildings, wharves, and other infrastructure. 2014. This thesis examines the role of government decision-making and uncertainty in disaster recovery, focusing on a case study of post-earthquake Christchurch, New Zealand. Further, it was predicted that because the quake had rendered the land so unstable in some places, certain areas might have to be abandoned altogether. Data from GNS Science, New Zealand. Saunders, J.S. Bexley and other suburbs were flooded after water mains broke; after the waters receded, quake-damaged roads and homes remained covered with silt. It began a series of earthquakes and aftershocks lasting till around 2016. However, in doing so it has still attempted to focus on longer-term adaptation and sustainability in its forward planning.

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