Cetaceans are descended from land-dwelling hoofed mammals, and the now extinct archaeocetes represent the several transitional phases from terrestrial to completely aquatic. Living in temperate waters, the Spade-toothed whales may be threatened by climate change, causing ocean warming, which in turn leads to reduction and modification of their natural range.  Historically, cetaceans were thought to have descended from the wolf-like mesonychids, but cladistic analyses confirm their placement with even-toed ungulates in the order Cetartiodactyla. They allow the mouth to expand immensely when feeding. Sperm whales Physeter macrocephalus) are the largest toothed whale species. , The family Balaenidae, the right whales, contains two genera and four species. Andrew’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon bowdoini)Arnoux’s beaked whale (Berardius arnuxii)Baird’s beaked whale (Berardius bairdii)Blainville’s Beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris)Gervais’ beaked whale (Mesoplodon europaeus)Ginkgo toothed beaked whale (Mesoplodon ginkgodens)Gray’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon grayi)Hector’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon hectori)Hubb’s Beaked whale (Mesoplodon carlhubbsi)Longman’s beaked whale (Indopac… There are only 14 baleen whale species and they are generally larger than the 76 species of toothed whales – except for the mighty sperm whale, the largest toothed whale. D&D Beyond They are distinct from dolphins, although the word "porpoise" has been used to refer to any small dolphin, especially by sailors and fishermen. That is equivalent to the length of three school buses lined up! It belongs to the killer whale or orca (Orcinus orca), a toothed whale of the oceanic dolphin family. There are 65 species of toothed whale including all dolphins and porpoises and they are smaller than their baleen cousins. There are only 14 baleen whale species and they are generally larger than the 76 species of toothed whales – except for the mighty sperm whale, the largest toothed whale. 22 posts Read More. 21. When not cited or footnoted differently, these are from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v. 2014.3; data current at 20 January 2015). Since then, more species have been listed in the IUCN Red List as Vulnerable and Nearly Threatended, while the Baiji river dolphin, which used to live in the Yangtze River, is now probably extinct. Investigations on Cetacea, 14: 15–46.  All rorquals have these unique folds.. There are Baleen Whales and Toothed Whales. Odontceti (toothed whales or odontocetes – approximately 75 species) Within each of these suborders are individual groups or ‘families.’ Each family has a scientific name and a common name. Males are much larger than females and may grow to about 60 feet in length, while females grow to about 36 feet. The spade-toothed whale was seen for the first time after a mother and her male calf died on a New Zealand beach. The Bryde’s Whale ranges in size depending on where they are located. At their largest, females can be around 35 feet and males at 32 feet, both around 11 tons in weight. His detailed descriptions were assimilated by the Romans, but mixed with a more accurate knowledge of the dolphins, as mentioned by Pliny the Elderin his Natural history. , Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. The order Cetacea comprises the sea mammals commonly known as whales, dolphins and porpoises, and is divided into two extant sub-orders: Odontoceti (toothed whales) and Mysticeti (baleen whales). While Odontoceti (toothed whales) bear sharp teeth for hunting. In the Pacific, a census recorded 175,000 individuals in eastern tropical waters and 85,000 in the west. Dolphin, any of the toothed whales belonging to the mammal family Delphinidae (oceanic dolphins) as well as the families Platanistidae and Iniidae, the two that contain the river dolphins. The North Atlantic population is not known, Total population not known. Baleen whales have two-holed blowholes, while toothed whales have one-holed blowholes. This small toothed whale weighs between 400 to 600 lbs on average. An analysis of more than 27,000 sounds from deep-diving pilot whales suggests that these whales use tiny volumes of air to produce powerful clicks. No global estimate of population exists, Total population unknown but thought to be locally common – it is the most common dolphin found around the Falkland Islands, Estimates of various stocks throughout the North Atlantic give an overall value into the high tens or low hundreds of thousands, Varying population estimates for areas around California and the North Pacific give a total of up to 400,000, Surveys suggest this is the most common dolphin off of Chilean waters, Local estimates include 70–80,000 in the Antarctic, 8,000 in the tropical Pacific (although tropical waters are not the orca's preferred environment, the sheer size of this area — 19 million square kilometres — means there are thousands of orcas), up to 2,000 off Japan, 1,500 off the cooler northeast Pacific and 1,500 off Norway, Estimates for eastern tropical Pacific are 45,000 and another recent survey estimates population to be 1,200 for the eastern Sulu Sea, no global estimate is known, The total population is unknown. This suggests the whales’ use of those sonar-like clicks for echolocation (Ek-oh-loh-KAY-shun) takes little energy. They also have a gestation period of over a year, which is unusual for baleen whales. Except for the Sperm Whale, most toothed whales are smaller than the baleen whales. The only toothed whale longer than 13 metres is the sperm whale (they can measure up to 18 metres). They may be numerous, with some dolphins bearing over 100 teeth in their jaws. In most cases, the Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals was the final say when there were any discrepancies. 20-57 tons in weight. The teeth differ considerably between the species. They are one of the deepest divers among marine mammals as well. . , The Monodontidae lack dorsal fins, which have been replaced by tough, fibrous ridges just behind the midpoints of their bodies and are probably an adaptation to swimming under ice, as both do in their Arctic habitat. Also, pygmy right whales' heads are no more than one-fourth the size of their bodies, whereas the right whales' heads are about one-third the size of their bodies. They are characterized by having a lower jaw that extends at least to the tip of the upper jaw, a shallow or non-existent notch between the tail flukes, a dorsal fin set far backwards, three of four fused neck vertebrae, extensive skull asymmetry and two conspicuous throat grooves forming a 'V' pattern (which aid in sucking). Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more. Pilot whales -- small, toothed whales with a bulging forehead, a short snout and pointed flippers -- are sociable creatures, and live in groups of dozens, hundreds or even thousands. The order Cetacea comprises the sea mammals commonly known as whales, dolphins and porpoises, and is divided into two extant sub-orders: Odontoceti (toothed whales) and Mysticeti (baleen whales).  Smaller cetaceans are at risk of accidentally getting caught by fishing vessels using, namely, seine fishing, drift netting, or gill netting operations.. The smallest species is only about 1 meter long, and the largest is more than 20 meters. , The La Plata dolphin is the only species of the family Pontoporiidae and genus Pontoporia. There is a lot of curiosity when it comes to some of Earth’s largest creature- the whale. These whales are the world’s largest toothed whales, living up to 70 years. La Plata dolphins are exclusively marine organisms, however, they are grouped with river-dolphins due to the fact that they reside in the La Plata River which is a salt-water estuary.  The pygmy right whale is the only extant member of its family. According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of the Spade-toothed whales is unknown for today.  They c, Porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae. Their weight averages at around 75 tons but can reach to around 100 tons. Therefore, to answer the earlier question, no creature on this planet is larger than the Blue Whale! Males can weigh up to 56 tons. The Bowhead Whale is one of the more thick-bodied whales.Their length ranges from about 46-59 feet (14-18 meters). There are about 65 different species of toothed whales. It may come as a surprise to learn that the toothed whales include all species of dolphins and porpoises. Sperm Whale. "Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S RNA mitochondrial sequences", "Relationships of Cetacea -Artiodactyla- Among Mammals: Increased Taxon Sampling Alters Interpretations of Key Fossils and Character Evolution", "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species", "The Ultimate Mouthful: Lunge Feeding in Rorqual Whales", "List of Marine Mammal Species and Subspecies", "What's the difference between dolphins and porpoises? Weighing at about 173 tons, the Blue Whale can grow to be about 98 feet (30 meters). A team of researchers at the University of California Davis have created a list of animals with ACE-2 receptors likely to bind closely to the coronavirus, officially known as SARS-CoV-2. Today, there about 80 species of living whales, or cetaceans. Females travel and live in groups, while male sperm whales are solitary animals except for mating. A species to top the list of the endangered species of whale is Southern Resident Killer Whale. A part of their tooth protrudes from the gums and has a … The Humpback Whale, one of the most popular for whale watchers due to their breaching habits, reach about 52 feet (16 meters) and can weigh about 30 tons! A few toothed whale species may only have a small handful of teeth that appear to be fairly useless when it comes to their survival. The Blue Whale is not only the largest whale species, but the largest mammal on Earth. By Futurismo Biologists Team; July 30, 2020; Pilot whales are divided into two different species: short-finned (G. macrorhynchus) and long-finned (G. melas). Fish & Wildlife Service put this species as the only killer whale in endangered list. These giant whales are quite similar to submarine: they can deep-dive while holding their breath for about 45 minutes below … Protecting the Canary Islands’ sea and its sperm whales Read More » A beaked whale is any of at least 22 species of whale in the family Ziphiidae. It has been said that this whale species may have decreased in overall size due to the large amount of whaling in the past. Although they are close in length to the Blue Whale, this species only weighs about 72 tons due to their slim shape. Toothed whales. • Toothed whales feed mostly on fish, squid, other whales and marine mammals, and baleen whales mostly on plankton, small fish and crustaceans. , Family Kogiidae: dwarf and pygmy sperm whales, Superfamily Platanistoidea: river dolphins, Family Platanistidae: South Asian river dolphin, As of August 2018, the Arabian common dolphin is considered a subspecies of the common dolphin by the, The total population is unknown but numbers in the hundreds of thousands, The only population estimate is of 38,900 individuals in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean, Total population is not known. • A baleen is a comb-like fringe on the upper jaw of the whale used to filter food. Both average at about 6 tons in weight. Among these marine mammals, there are two groups: baleen and toothed. So here it is, a list of toothed whales: Sperm whale Pygmy sperm whale Dwarf sperm whale. This toothed whale grows to around 2.7 m (9 ft.) in length. The teeth differ considerably between the species. It is the rarest beaked whale although it is believed that it is larger than the ginkgo-toothed beaked whale in size. It is divided into toothed whales (Odontoceti) and baleen whales (Mysticeti), which diverged from each other some time in the Eocene 26 to 17 million years ago (mya). Of the two living groups, one of them, the toothed whales, or odontocetes, retains teeth. Toothed whales include orcas and other dolphins, sperm whales and pilot whales. Living in temperate waters, the Spade-toothed whales may be threatened by climate change, causing ocean warming, which in turn leads to reduction and modification of their natural range. The shape of the toothed whale is relatively large. Toothed whales are active hunters, feeding on fish, squid, and in some cases other marine mammals.. The researchers collected autopsy data from 83 toothed whales and dolphins that washed up in Florida and North Carolina between 2012 and 2018. U.S. The sperm whale characteristically has a large, squarish head one-third the length of its body; the blowhole is slightly to the left hand side; the skin is usually wrinkled; and it has no teeth on the upper jaw. The Odontoceti suborder includes all the cetaceans with teeth and a single nostril in the blowhole. First, it’s said that many sailors spotted orcas preying on other whales and larger marine species, garnering them the nickname “whale killer.” Over time, this namesake morphed into “killer whale.” The Right Whale is extremely robust. We have seen all 18 species of odontocetes and three species of mysticetes in our work. It is closely related to the slightly larger Pygmy Sperm Whale, which is also found in Antarctic waters.Both species are most often seen floating motionless at the surface; this behaviour is known as ‘logging’.These rare whales are seldom seen. Of the nearly 40 species of dolphins in the Delphinidae, 6 are commonly called whales, including the killer whale and the… Large square head, with small lower jaw with teeth. Here’s the list of all types of whales. However a comparison of two surveys, one from the late 1970s and the other from 1999/2000 shows a decline in population and distribution, In China, they are endangered. Once called devil fish due to their ferocious fighting behavior against hunters, these valiant creatures can reach about 49 feet in length (14.9 meters) and weigh around 40 tons. Toothed whales have lost their sense of smell, as well as their saliva glands. Orcas, sometimes called killer whales, are actually the world's largest dolphins. The important foods of the Toothed Whales are fish, squid, and some can also prey on seabirds, seals, sea beasts and other large animals such as whales. On average, it grows to be about 59 feet long (18 meters). Speciation in the Platanistoidea, systematic, zoogeographical and ecological observations on recent species. The most obvious visible differences between the two groups are that porpoises have a less pronounced beak, and have spade-shaped teeth as opposed to conical.. Their weight ranges from 13-28 tons. Cetacea is an infraorder that comprises the 89 species of whales, dolphins, and porpoises. Crude estimates, obtained by surveying small areas and extrapolating the result to all the world's oceans, range from 200,000 to 2,000,000 individuals, Arnoux's beaked whales seem to be relatively abundant in Cook Strait during summer, Virtually nothing is known about the abundance of Baird's beaked whales, except they are not rare as was formerly thought, Nothing is known about the relative abundance of this species or its population composition, Because of the difficulty of identifying the species the total global population is unknown, Total population is unknown but likely to be of the order of 10,000, A 2002 survey estimates there are 766 animals around, As of August 2018, the Araguaian river dolphin is not recognized by the, Estimates give values of 1,100 Indus river dolphins and maybe as few as 20 Ganges river dolphins. • Whales are either toothed (Odontoceti) or have baleen (Mysticeti). Baleen whales are characterized by having baleen plates for filter feeding and two blowholes. But how big is a full grown whale? U.S. Toothed whales include sperm whales, as well as dolphins , porpoises, and orcas, among others. Toothed whales, as the name suggests, have teeth, which are used to hunt and eat squid, fish, and seals. Toothed whale, (suborder Odontoceti), any of the odontocete cetaceans, including the oceanic dolphins, river dolphins, porpoises, pilot whales, beaked whales, and bottlenose whales, as well as the killer whale, sperm whale, narwhal, and beluga whale. 11-18 metres in length (females are smaller than males). Here’s the list of all types of whales. The toothed whales form an extraordinary group of marine mammals, ranging in size over several orders of magnitude from the smallest harbour porpoises in the Black Sea (1.3 m long and 45 kg) to the cosmo-politan sperm whale (18 m long, 57,000 kg). It is the only benthic feeding baleen whale, filtering small organisms from the mud of shallow seas. In tabular form, seven descriptors are given for each species: the common name; the scientific name; the IUCN Red List status; a global population estimate; a global map with its range; its weight with an image of its shape, and its size relative to a human; and a photograph. Success! These whales inhabit in the North Pacific Ocean, from Washington and Canada to California. Being solidly built, Right Whales are significantly heavier than other whales, weighing around 100 tons. Several species have only been described in the last two decades. The Dwarf Sperm Whale is the smallest whale. For the most part toothed whales are smaller than their baleen whale counterparts with the largest of the toothed whale family, the sperm whale, growing to lengths of up to 67 ft. and weighing over 45 tons. Unlike the other great whales on the endangered species list, the sperm whale is a toothed whale. Dwarf sperm whales have a stocky appearance that narrows down the … Southern Resident Killer Whale. They include the largest animal that has ever lived, the blue whale. There are only 14 baleen whale species and they are generally larger than the 76 species of toothed whales – except for the mighty sperm whale, the largest toothed whale. Toothed Whales & Dolphins. A question is often asked, “What is bigger than a whale?” Well, that answer depends solely on which whale species you are referring to! In Aristotle's time, the fourth century BC, whales were regarded as fish due to their superficial similarity. These dolphins are known for their long beak in relation to their relatively small body size. This group includes beaked whales, sperm whales, dolphins, and their kin; essentially any living whale with teeth as adults. There are only 14 baleen whale species and they are generally larger than the 76 species of toothed whales – except for the mighty sperm whale, the largest toothed whale. Toothed Whales . Unlike baleen whales, toothed whales have only the one blowhole and, of course, teeth. They have a small geographic range and are mainly found in the waters along the east coast of South America. Eschrichtiidae only has one living member: the gray whale. Click here to Learn more about whale watching, Click here to Learn more about book your tour, Click here to Learn more about special events, Click here to Learn more about what we see, Click here to Learn more about field trips, Click here to Learn more about whale watching report, Click here to Learn more about customer testimonials and reviews, Click here to Learn more about charter options, Click here to Learn more about all charter options, Click here to Learn more about rehearsal dinners, Click here to Learn more about corporate entertaining, Click here to Learn more about catering & private dining, Click here to Learn more about anniversaries, Click here to Learn more about film/media production, Click here to Learn more about cocktail cruises, Click here to Learn more about engagement parties, Click here to Learn more about bridal showers, Click here to Learn more about the yacht america, Click here to Learn more about sustainability, Click here to Learn more about our partners, Click here to Learn more about gift cards, Click here to Learn more about contact us, The Humpback Whale, one of the most popular for, Click here to email email@example.com, Click here to view location 2050 Shelter Island Drive Females travel and live in groups, while male sperm whales are solitary animals except for mating. These grow to be about 90 feet long (27.5 meters). Population number. This includes data values and the controlled vocabularies that house them. There are estimated to be in excess of 200,000 in the Southern Ocean. But did you know that dolphins and porpoises are also specialized whales? 2. Datasets available include LCSH, BIBFRAME, LC Name Authorities, LC Classification, MARC codes, PREMIS vocabularies, ISO language codes, and more. Their size averages at about 46 feet. , Whale populations were drastically reduced in the 20th century from intensive whaling, and the activity was globally banned in 1982. Its name is derived from the fact that its protruding teeth resemble the shape of a … Their propensity for staying close to shore places them in great danger from fishing, There are no quantitative data on abundance, Nothing is known of the abundance of this porpoise. This is a list of individual cetaceans from real life or fiction, arranged roughly taxonomically. In the art of this and subsequent periods, dolphins are portrayed wit… Of the nearly 40 species of dolphins in the Delphinidae, 6 are commonly called whales, including the killer whale and the… Many of these listings are controversial and not universally accepted by researchers because they are based solely on DNA samples. This sub-order, also defined as toothed whales and dolphins, include the beaked Pilot whales -- small, toothed whales with a bulging forehead, a short snout and pointed flippers -- are sociable creatures, and live in groups of dozens, hundreds or even thousands. This sub-order, also defined as toothed whales and dolphins, include the beaked Odontoceti (toothed whales; cohort Mutica, order Cetacea) A suborder of marine mammals that comprises ancestral forms, known from the Upper Eocene, and the four superfamilies: Squalodontoidea (extinct forms), Platanistoidea (river dolphins), Physeteroidea (large whales), and Delphinoidea (smaller whales, dolphins, and porpoises).Teeth are always present, and may be numerous (e.g. The eastern Pacific was estimated to have in excess of 40,000 individuals and is probably the home of the largest grouping, There are estimated to be 40,000 individuals in the, Aerial surveys suggest a population of around 20,000 individuals. This makes them second in line to the Blue Whale based off of sheer body mass. The early archaic whales, archaeocetes like Basilosaurus, resembled extinct mosasaurs and living orcas and hunted in similar ways. The only toothed whale longer than 13 metres is the sperm whale (they can measure up to 18 metres). 1. I have written a short introduction to each family and a list of species in that family. A second major difference between the two species is the use of and reliance on echolocation. 1.5K views; 2 minute read; Toothed Whales & Dolphins; Pilot whale fact sheet. Suborder Mysticeti (baleen whales or mysticetes) Family Scientific name IWC Common name All, or almost all, the cervical vertebrae are unfused, allowing their heads to be turned independently of their bodies. Toothed whales have lost their sense of smell, as well as their saliva glands. As the name implies, they tend to be found in the open seas, unlike the river dolphins, although a few species such as the Irrawaddy dolphin are coastal or riverine. Males average around 53 feet (16 m) but the largest can reach up to 66 feet (20 m). Toothed whales are known to use echolocation to … Discover below the species of toothed whale you may encounter on … Toothed whales, including all dolphins and porpoises, have teeth, only one blowhole (baleen whales have two) and are generally smaller than most baleen whales. These whales are found worldwide. Another obvious difference between baleen and toothed whales is the number of blowholes on top of their head; baleen whales have two whereas toothed whales have one. The Minke Whale is the second smallest Baleen whale (Pygmy Right Whale is the first). There is great disagreement among taxonomists as to what criteria, if any, constitutes a separate species, sub-species, race or variation. One survey estimated a population of about 11,000 in the eastern Pacific, There is not enough data to place finless porpoises on the endangered species list, There are no good estimates of the animals' abundance. The distinguishing features of these whales are the very large teeth, which are about 9 inches in length. All right whales have no ventral grooves; a distinctive head shape with a strongly arched, narrow rostrum, bowed lower jaw; lower lips that enfold the sides and front of the rostrum; and long, narrow, elastic baleen plates (up to nine times longer than wide) with fine baleen fringes. On average, females are 26 feet in length while males are around 23 feet. Due to their enormous size, if you are left wondering what is the largest thing a whale can swallow, the answer is- a grapefruit! The list compiled below is based on information in the Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, the Guide to Marine Mammals of the World and Wikipedia. Found in the offshore waters of the world, from tropical to subpolar waters. These were all previously classified in the superfamily Platanistoidea, but the superfamily is now recognized as paraphyletic and invalid.. The ancestors of present-day odontocetes It has been said that this whale species may have decreased in overall size due to the large amount of whaling in the past. Whales are the hippopotamus's close… The Society for Marine Mammalogy has created an extensive list of cetacean species (see below). Pilot whales -- small, toothed whales with a bulging forehead, a short snout and pointed flippers -- are sociable creatures, and live in groups of dozens, hundreds or even thousands. The Linked Data Service provides access to commonly found standards and vocabularies promulgated by the Library of Congress. Another obvious difference between baleen and toothed whales is the number of blowholes on top of their head; baleen whales have two whereas toothed whales have one. In the past, whalers have sought out the Sperm whale for the valuable spermaceti oil, which makes an extremely fine lubricant. The list is organized taxonomically into parvorders, superfamilies when applicable, families, subfamilies when applicable, genus, and then species. Except for the Sperm Whale, most toothed whales are smaller than the baleen whales. The largest of the toothed whales is the sperm whale, one of the few whale species that can live in a range of environments and is therefore found in oceans across the world. Porpoises, divided into seven species, live in all oceans, mostly near the shore. Oceanic dolphins are the members of the family Delphinidae.  The species was declared functionally extinct in 2006 after an expedition to estimate the population found none. As opposed to baleen whales, the toothed whales They include species as small as the vaquita and as large as the sperm whale, and exhibit diverse characteristics, distribution, and feeding strategies. It was the most commonly encountered species during preliminary beach surveys undertaken on, The most recent estimate for the North Pacific and Bering Sea is 1,186,000, The total number of sperm whales throughout the world is unknown. Success! Among the 72 toothed whale species in existence (and among all whale species), the dwarf sperm whale is the smallest with a length of nearly nine feet. The Sperm Whale is the largest toothed whale in existence, getting to be an average of 67 feet in length (20.5 meters). The world's 82 types of whales are mainly divided into two groups deriving from their food and eating habits, and consequently, their anatomy. This family contains one genus with two species. According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of the Spade-toothed whales is unknown for today. , River dolphins are the five cetaceans which reside in freshwater rivers and estuaries. The flippers are small, rounded and tend to curl up at the ends in adulthood. They have blunt, squarish heads with narrow, underslung jaws; the flippers are set far forward, close to the head and their dorsal fins are set far back down the body. San Diego, CA 92106. Below we will discuss ten whale species, both Baleen and toothed, starting from largest to smallest. The Odontoceti suborder includes all the cetaceans with teeth and a single nostril in the blowhole. The Platanistidae were originally thought to hold only one species (the South Asian river dolphin), but, based on differences in skull structure, vertebrae and lipid composition, it was split into two separate species in the early 1970s. Toothed whales, including all dolphins and porpoises, have teeth, only one blowhole (baleen whales have two) and are generally smaller than most baleen whales. ", National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, "Only 12 vaquita porpoises remain, watchdog group reports", "Baiji genomes reveal low genetic variability and new insights into secondary aquatic adaptations", "National Marine Mammal Laboratory - La Plata Dolphins", Society for Marine Mammalogy's Taxonomy Committee List of Marine Mammal Species and subspecies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_cetaceans&oldid=991621718, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 00:38. Another obvious difference between baleen and toothed whales is the number of blowholes on top of their head; baleen whales have two whereas toothed whales have one. The family Lipotidae contains only the baiji. Conservation status codes listed follow the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (v. 2014.3; data current at 20 January 2015).
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