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amaranthus dubius description

Vaduz, Liechtenstein: J. Cramer. A. dubius is a subsistence vegetable and a collected pot herb, seldom found in markets, but in Kenya and recently in Benin it is grown on a commercial scale and sold in city markets. The PLANTS Database. Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy: weeds target list. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. ex Thell. No statistical data on production are available. Elle possède une racine pivotante profonde. Pal, Sumit , Neelam Patel, Anushree Malik, Singh, D. K., 2015. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS USING Amaranthus dubius _____ John Jason Mellem Submitted in complete fulfillment for the Degree of Master of Technology (Biotechnology) in the Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, ... SITE DESCRIPTION AND SAMPLE PROCUREMENT ..... 31 3.1.2. Sealy, R. L., McWilliams, E. L., Novak, J., Fong, F., Kenerley, C. M., 1990. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 23(4):287-291. Grubben, G. J. H., Denton, O. Amaranthus dubius is considered to be a morphologically deviant allopolyploid. adv. Amaranthus dubius Mart. Geographical distibution Comoros . grows easily in the Caribbean and is widely used throughout the region interchangeably with spinach (Spinacia oleracea L) as a leafy green. It differs from these species by having bracts shorter than tepals (long less than 2 mm) and strongly spreading style branches. PROTA (2014) noted that ‘it is almost impossible to make a distinction between A. dubius and A. spinosus based on morphological characters’ other than by the axillary spines in A. spinosus. - a newly naturalized plant of mainland of China. Taiwania, 52(1):59-69. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/taiwania. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. A. dubius spreads by seeds. Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. Amaranthus dubius is a weedy plant widespread throughout the humid lowland tropics. USDA-ARS, 2013. It is in leaf from April to October, in flower in August, and the seeds ripen in September. Hill MJ, Vel TM, Holm KJ, Parr SJ, Shah NJ, 2002. Singh, U. C., Sundararajan, S., Veeraragavathatham, D., 1985. Each plant produces a high number of seeds. Weeds of sugar cane in Mauritius: their description and control. Srivasta V, Pal M, Nair PKK, 1977. Heavy metal health risk assessment and microbial menaces via dietary intake of vegetables collected from Delhi and national capital regions peri urban area, India., Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment, 13(2):82-88 http://world-food.net/heavy-metal-health-risk-assessment-and-microbial-menaces-via-dietary-intake-of-vegetables-collected-from-delhi-and-national-capital-regions-peri-urban-area-india/. As is typical of leafy greens, the postharvest life of … More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Amaranthus dubius: Relacionados. Oriental & Unusual Amaranth Red Aztec,An improved Red Amaranth variety, with an intense red colour. [6], For other leaf vegetables known as 'Chinese spinach', see. The name Amaranthus dubius was first published by Martius without diagnosis and description, so it has to be considered invalid. Sreelathakumary, I., Peter, K. V., 1993. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Australian Quarantine & Inspection Service, 110 pp. Mosyakin and Robertson (1999) proposed the new nothosection Dubia Mosyakin & K. R. Robertson (subgenus Amaranthus section Amaranthus) to house A. dubius, which is a morphologically deviant allopolyploid taxon very closely related to both A. spinosus L. (Sect. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Vegetable amaranths: cultivar selection for summer production in the south., Advances in new crops. Amaranthus dubius Mart. It is in leaf from April to October, in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen. A. dubius is morphologically similar to A. hybridus and A. powellii. It is cultivated in many countries, especially in Africa, but it can be difficult to know whether its presence in a country is only as a cultivated plant or as a naturalised plant. USDA-ARS, 2013. Not hardy but thrives in the summer. Potential risks mainly relate to the spread of A. dubius in the African and Asian countries, where this species is grown for food. Erlangae. PHYTOREMEDIATION OF HEAVY METALS USING Amaranthus dubius _____ John Jason Mellem Submitted in complete fulfillment for the Degree of Master of Technology (Biotechnology) in the Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, Durban University of Technology, ... SITE DESCRIPTION AND … (Bangalore), 34:370-371. Amaranthus dubius, the red spinach, Chinese spinach. Martius CFPvon, 1814. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) 158 pp. Spleen amaranth is native to Asia, Africa and Europe, and is widely cultivated as a green leafy vegetable in Africa and South Asia. This species has been widely introduced as a green vegetable for human consumption and as a medicinal herb. It has very high concentrations of minerals in its leaves, and there is some concern that it can also take up toxic metals if present in the soil, rendering it toxic as a food. Grain amaranth was an important crop for the preHispanic, New World … It has escaped from cultivation and now it is considered casual or naturalized mainly in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, Australia and the Pacific. An extensive alien plant inventory from the inhabited areas of Galapagos. Plant resources of tropical Africa 2. 1. Bot, 44:1-4. http://botany.si.edu/antilles/westindies/. Thellung (1912) validly published the name. Stem rather slender to stout, usually branched, mostly hairless or with short to rather long hairs upwards, especially in the inflorescence. … Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus blitum, Amaranthus dubius, and Amaranthus tricolor. Gdn, 54(2):103-37. Vegetable amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) Thellung (1912) validly published the name. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. Sukhorukov PA, 2011. CABI. A spiny relative of amaranth called uray (A. spinosus L.) is common in some regions in the Philippines. Sin material de COL Flora. In A. hybridus and A. powellii the bracts are longer than or equal to the tepals (2-7 mm long) and the style branches are erect or slightly reflexed. Sus sinonimias son las siguientes: Amaranthus dubius var. Mosyakin and Robertson (1996) proposed a new taxon (Amaranthus nothosection Dubia Mosyakin & K. R. Robertson) to accommodate this particular species. Online Database. 315-323. [5] In Uganda, it is commonly cooked with onions, tomatoes and peanut sauce. A. dubius is an annual herb native to South America, Mexico and the West Indies. Description Amaranth is the name given to a group of approximately 70 species of annual or short-lived perennial plants in the genus Amaranthus including several species of aggressive edible weeds native to the US such as Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed). - a review., Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 6(1):136-143 http://www.ajol.info/index.php/bajopas/article/view/99279/88571. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Amaranthus dubius Mart. Amaranthus dubius … Amaranthus dubius Mart. Material en COL. Natural History > Life Cycle. Synopsis of the subgenus Amaranthus (Amaranthus, Amaranthaceae) in Venezuela. A. dubius has the C4 photosynthesis pathway. Amaranthus dubius. A. dubius is not known to differ from other Amaranthus species in its susceptibility to herbicides. Spleen amaranth is native to Asia, Africa and Europe, and is widely cultivated as a green leafy vegetable in Africa and South Asia. Acta Botanica Venezuelica, 33(2):329. http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0084-59062010000200009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=es. Amaranthus dubius Mart. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78 1-581. Amaranthaceae Amaranthus australis Amaranthus blitum Amaranthus crassipes Amaranthus dubius Amaranthus hybridus Amaranthus spinosus Amaranthus viridis. ex Thell. GBIF, 2015. Hymal. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. The species commonly found in Trinidad and Tobago is Amaranthus dubius (Mohoyodeen, 1995). In Kenya it is cooked with other leaf vegetables such as Solanum spp., Cleome gynandra and Launaea cornuta. Insects are a serious problem for amaranth growers. The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. Montpellier: 203 (1912). Annales Botanici Fennici, 33(4):275-281. Amaranthus dubius Mart. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora. Amaranthus roxburghianus root extract in combination with piperine as a potential treatment of ulcerative colitis in mice. ... Description… The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated … Smithsonian Institution, 2012. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Red Amaranth sidedish (Tamdi bhajji randayi), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Amaranthus_dubius&oldid=970660219, Plants used in traditional African medicine, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 1 August 2020, at 17:13. Amaranthus dubius, the red spinach, Chinese spinach. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. viii + 320 pp.. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20093330163. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) ([English title not available])., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press, 3348 pp. McIntyre G, 1991. Seeds are dispersed by wind, water, birds and as a contaminant in pasture and crop seeds and attached in agricultural machinery. Amaranthus dubius. Townsend CC, 1980. Historical and typification study; biometric intra- and interpopulation analyses on specimens collected from both native areas (central and southern America) and exotic ones (especially Africa); molecular studies at population level (both intrapopulational, especially for American native populations, and interpopulational, especially in comparison between American native populations and xenophyte populations in Africa, Asia and Australia), and comparative studies between the section Dubia Mosyakin & K. R. Robertson, the section Centrusa Griseb. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis. Mauritius . Amaranthus dubius Mart. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. Usually it grows to a size of 80–120 cm. flexuosus, Amaranthus dubius var. In Benin it is usually cooked alone. No detailed studies about the vegetation communities associated with A. dubius have been published. Although no studies on social impacts have been carried out, the abundant flowers, pollen production and small pollen size in the genus Amaranthus mean it could have an impact as an allergenic species (see for example Costea et al., 2001a; 2001b; Costea and Tardif, 2003; Iamonico, 2010). unpaginated. Achigan-Dako, E. G., Sogbohossou, O. E. D., Maundu, P., 2014. Taxonomy and richness of nine genera of Amaranthaceae s.s. (Caryophyllales) in the Yucatan Peninsula Biotic Province. Amaranthus cruentus, Amaranthus blitum, Amaranthus dubius, and Amaranthus tricolor. This plant is native to South America, Mexico, and the West Indies, however; it is widely introduced throughout the world. Flora of the West Indies. It possibly originated as a result of ancient hybridization between A. spinosus L. and either A. hybridus or A. quitensis (Grant, 1959; Pal and Khoshoo, 1965; Sauer, 1967), though doubts were expressed and discussed in Grubben (2004). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology, 23:287-291. View abstract. 2013;11(3):206-12. y publicado en La flore adventice de Montpellier 203. Taxonomy and richness of nine genera of Amaranthaceae s.s. (Caryophyllales) in the Yucatan Peninsula Biotic Province. Description (After Townsend, 1985)An annual herbaceous plant. It is a ruderal species, usually found in waste places or disturbed habitats. Veena Srivastava, Mohinder Pal, Nair PKK, 1977. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2015. In Australia, it grows as a weed of annual crops and plantations and as an environmental weed (Waterhouse and Mitchell, 1998). McIntyre G, 1991. In: Phytotaxa, 107 1-74. Flora of the West Indies., USA: Smithsonian Institution. This species has been widely introduced as a green vegetable for human consumption and as a medicinal herb. Amaranths like fertile, free-drained alkaline soils. Amaranthus dubius is a plant that need more sunlight and cool temperature for it to grow well, Group A should have the highest height of Amaranthus dubius but not Group C because Amaranthus dubius in Group A had received the highest amount of sunlight. Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, 2008. Category:Amaranthus dubius. Goode, P.M. (1989) Edible Plants of Uganda. It flowers from summer to fall in the tropics, but can flower throughout the year in subtropical conditions. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf from April to October, in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Inflorescences terminal panicles and axillary spikes; panicles erect or often drooping, green, dense, branched, leafless at least distally. and some related taxa (A. cruentus L., A. hybridus L., and A. quitensis Kunth) of the section Amaranthus (all of which are included in the subgenus Amaranthus). Description: Erect annual herb, mostly up to c. 90 cm, rarely taller. Curr. Description Top of page A. viridis is similar to other species of Amaranthus, having distinct leaf venation and long petioles. The main habitats in which A. dubius occurs are: tropical forest, humid lowland waste areas, vegetable gardens and roadsides (Mosyakin and Robertson, 2003; Palmer, 2009; Sukhorukov, 2011; Sanchez-del Piño et al., 2013). ex Thell.. Protologue: Fl. Studies on the introduction of grain amaranthus. The name Amaranthus dubius was first published by Martius (1814) without diagnosis and description, so it has to be considered invalid (McNeill et al., 2012). Sin material de COL Flora. Flowering time is from May to September (summer to autumn in the tropics and various seasons in the subtropics). New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp. Amaranths are short seasonal annual crops. Biyun Village, Kuangtung st.. Naturalized, New Caledonia and Ile Grande Terre islands, Mainly in the north; Original citation: Pinto and Velásuez (2010), Average temp. Its preferred soils are fertile, well-drained and with a loose structure (Grubben, 2004). e10276. This species is valued as a leafy vegetable throughout South and Southeast Asia[2] and also in Africa. A spiny relative of amaranth called uray (A. spinosus L.) is common in some regions in the Philippines. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Amaranthus is widely distributed in both tropical and sub tropical regions. Amaranthus albus L., A. blitoides S. Watson and A. blitum L. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 83(4):1039-1066. Amaranthaceae. of coldest month > 0°C and < 18°C, mean warmest month > 10°C, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. [Miscellaneous Publication No. Further phytosociological studies are needed. Cadmium contamination in green leaves grown in Madurai District, India., International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4(2):610-616 http://www.ijcmas.com/vol-4-2/N.Sasirekha%20and%20P.S.Navaraj.pdf. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur: (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay))., USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Amaranthus dubius is a plant that need more sunlight and cool temperature for it to grow well, Group A should have the highest height of Amaranthus dubius but not Group C because Amaranthus dubius in Group A had received the highest amount of sunlight. Ecological correlates of ex situ seed longevity: a comparative study on 195 species., Annals of Botany, 104(1):57-69 http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/, PROTA, 2014. Current knowledge on Amaranthus spp. Famille: Amaranthaceae Nombre de chromosomes: 2n = 64 University of Peradeniya & Smithsonian Institution. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581. The name Amaranthus dubius was first published by Martius without diagnosis and description, so it has to be considered invalid. PIER, 2014. The species is monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and is pollinated by Wind. PLoS ONE. Amaranth, (genus Amaranthus), genus of 60–70 species of flowering plants in the family Amaranthaceae, distributed nearly worldwide. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Decline of indigenous crop diversity in colonial and post-colonial Rwanda (in press). Showing 0 of 0 comments. 1,240 sds/gram. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany. Pancho HL, Herberger JV, Plucknett JP, Donald L, 1979. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. It is a ruderal species, usually found in waste places or disturbed habitats. It is a ruderal species, usually found in waste places or disturbed habitats. Acta Botánica Venezuelica, 33(2):329-356. A. dubius is recorded as invasive on Cousine Island, Seychelles, where it occupies plateau and high woodland areas (Dunlop et al., 2005). Source and variability for nutritive aspects in amaranth (Amaranthus species). of coolest month > 18°C, > 1500mm precipitation annually, Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Average temp. Grubben (2004) noted that ‘it is almost impossible to make a distinction between A. dubius and A. spinosus based on morphological characters’ other than by the axillary spines in A. spinosus. Show All Show Tabs spleen amaranth Amaranthus dubius is a … However, it is not a legal authority for statutory or regulatory purposes. It can grow from near sea level up to 1300 m altitude in Papua New Guinea (PIER, 2014). Amaranthus dubius Mart. The species commonly found in Trinidad and Tobago is Amaranthus dubius (Mohoyodeen, 1995). Annual herb, 10-100(-200) cm tall, glabrous or sparsely pubescent in distal parts. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Pal M, Khoshoo TM, 1965. ex Thell.. Protologue: Fl. Amaranthus blitum is a ANNUAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). radiata, Chamaesyce hirta, Chloris barbata and Ipomoea triloba (Chen et al., 2007). ex Thell. [4] Sinonimia. Effects of intercropping on fresh leaf yield of Amaranth (A. dubius) in Western Kenya., Acta Horticulturae:173-180 http://www.actahort.org, Okafo, C. N., Umoh, V. J., Galadima, M., 2003. The grain amaranths and their relatives: a revised taxonomic and geographic survey. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Flora of Cuba., 1951-1957. Amaranthus is a cosmopolitan genus of annual or short-lived perennial plants collectively known as amaranths. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. A geographical atlas of world weeds. It could also propagate and spread in Europe, possible by human activity and bird migrations. George ST, Barat GK, Sivakami N, Choudhury B, 1989. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-ARS, 2015. It is grown throughout the year in tropics and in autumn, spring and summer seasons in temperate regions. A study of the pollen grain of the Amaranthus spinosus Linne and A. dubius Mart. Species description or overview Amaranthus dubius information from PIER Information on Amaranthus dubius as relevant to Pacific Islands is provided by the Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk project (PIER). Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA. Flowering plants of Jamaica. Bot. & Denton, O.A. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. A. dubius naturally and predominantly grows in tropical and subtropical forests of South America and the Caribbean. Series Plant and Vegetation., 7 London, UK: Springer. Erect, monoecious, annual herb 2 m, sometimes becoming much branched, stout and succulent; stems green to pink, glabrous to sparsely puberulent. The name Amaranthus dubius was first published by Martius without diagnosis and description, so it has to be considered invalid. On hybridization between Amaranthus dubius and A. spinosus in the vicinity of Ibadan, Nigeria. Some new and noteworthy species for the Flora of Nepal. Brown G, Mies B, 2012. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 23(3):284-288. http://jtsb.scib.ac.cn/jtsb_en/ch/index.aspx, Waterhouse BM, Mitchell AA, 1998. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2015. Microbial and parasitic contamination on fresh vegetables sold in traditional markets in Hue City, Vietnam, Journal of Food and Nutrition Research , 2(12):959-964, Chen ShihHuei, Wu MingJou, 2007. Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Cultivated types of A. dubius are larger, more erect and more succulent than weedy types (Grubben, 2004). Staminate flowers usually clustered at tips of inflorescence branches, sometimes gathered in proximal glomerules (as in A. spinosus); tepals 5, equal or subequal; stamens 5, about 2 mm long. Amaranthus dubius Mart. George, R. A. T., 2009. Amaranth: Amaranthus spp. Content. The species occurs locally in France and Germany and is naturalized or invasive in tropical and subtropical regions of the United States (Florida and Hawaii), Africa, Asia, Australia and the Pacific.[1]. Grant WF, 1959. University of Peradeniya & Smithsonian Institution, 1-57. Preliminary results toward a revision of the Amaranthus hybridus species complex (Amaranthaceae). Sida, 19(4):975-992. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). ex Thellung and their hybrids. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. Sogbohossou and Achigan-Dako (2014) distinguished two main groups of A. dubius accessions: (1) the dwarf types morphologically close to A. spinosus, which are early flowering, with low plant height (up to 1.2 m), small leaves and many branches and (2) the giant types which are late flowering, tall (up to 2 m), with broad leaves and few branches. It is also listed as invasive in Cuba and on several islands in the Pacific Ocean (Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2014). Amaranthus tricolor verschilt wezenlijk van de andere Amaranthus-soorten en kruist niet met de andere soorten (is vooralsnog mijn ervaring). If you fit this description, you can use … The name Amaranthus dubius was first published by Martius without diagnosis and description, so it has to be considered invalid. Als je ze wilt oogsten schud en wrijf je eens voorzichtig met je ene hand langs de bloeiaar terwijl je die boven je andere hand … Accepted name Brède malbar Plantae ... Habitat and Distribution > Distribution > Description. Mosyakin SL, Robertson KR, 1996. J Integr Med. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago., Vaduz, Liechtenstein: J. Cramer. A. dubius most probably originated as a result of ancient hybridization between A. spinosus and either A. hybridus or A. quitensis (Mosyakin and Robertson, 2004). It has very high concentrations of minerals in its leaves, and there is some concern that it can also take up toxic metals if present in the soil, rendering it toxic as a food. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen. Palmer J, 2009. Sci. Biology, life-strategy and invasiveness of Amaranthus retroflexus L. (Amaranthaceae) in central Italy: preliminary remarks. Seeds dark reddish brown to black, subglobose or lenticular, 0.8-1 mm diameter, shiny, smooth. 126. De zaden kunnen crème, bruin, rood of zwart van kleur zijn. Amaranthus dubius Mart. Facts. Weeds of Sugar Cane in Mauritius: Their Description and Control. Life cycle Annual . Disclaimer: ITIS taxonomy is based on the latest scientific consensus available, and is provided as a general reference source for interested parties. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov, Wang QiuShi, Wang Yuan, Yan XiaoLing, Zeng XianFeng, Ma JinShuang, Li HongQing, 2015. [English title not available]. However, especially in tropical Africa it is widely naturalized and cultivated and could compete with other cultivated plants, causing a reduction in agricultural income (see for example Costea et al., 2001a; Iamonico, 2010). Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis. Category:Amaranthus dubius. Montpellier : 203 (1912). Palmer J, 2009. Amaranthaceae. by Dassanayake MD, Fosberg FR]. Spermatophyta. Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Online Database. It is in leaf from April to October, in flower in August, and the seeds ripen in September. Cytogenetic studies in Amaranthus. Kromosomo, 2(51-52):1665-1674. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. In tropical Africa and elsewhere Amaranthus spinosus leaves and young plants are collected for home consumption as a cooked, steamed or fried vegetable, especially during periods of drought. A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon. Notes on four newly naturalized plants in Taiwan. Proceedings of the first national symposium 'New crops: research, development, economics', Indianapolis, Indiana, USA, 23-26 October 1988.:396-398. Some amaranth species are cultivated as leaf vegetables, pseudocereals, and ornamental plants.Most of the Amaranthus species are summer annual weeds and are commonly referred to as pigweeds. Nutritional value and utilization of amaranthus (Amaranthus spp.) Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies. For documenting flora of India that is being discussed on efloraofindia google e-group along with supplementing the working of the group. In backyards with repeated pickings, Amaranthus dubius plants may become perennial, up amarabthus 2 years old. Reduit, Mauritius: Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute. The name Amaranthus dubius was first published by Martius without diagnosis and description, so it has to be considered invalid. Catkin-like … The name Amaranthus dubius was first published by Martius (1814) without diagnosis and description, so it has to be considered invalid (McNeill et al., 2012). The emergence of the seedling takes place 3-5 days after sowing. (Sinopsis del subgénero Amaranthus (Amaranthus, Amaranthaceae) en Venezuela.) Taiwania. Natural interspecific hybridization between Amaranthus dubius and A. spinosus. In: Amaranthaceae, 1 [ed. Case studies on invasive behaviour. Wageningen, Netherlands: PROTA. Vegetable amaranths grow very well in the hot, humid regions of Africa, South-east Asia, Southern China, and India; they are represented by various amaranth species, such as A. tricolor, A. dubius, A. cruentus, A. edulis, A. retroflexus, A. viridis, and A. hybridus. Carmona Pinto W, Orsini Velásquez G, 2010. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, PROTA, 2014. Chen ShihHuei, Wu MingJou, 2007. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. Hymal. Wallingford, UK: CABI. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=1&taxon_id=10031, Muriuki, E. N., Sila, D. N., Onyango, A., 2014. A geographical atlas of world weeds., New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons. Family: Amaranthaceae Chromosome number: 2n = 64 Show All Show Tabs spleen amaranth Cousin Island. A. dubius is mainly used as a leaf vegetable, both in Africa (Grubben, 2004) and in Asia (George et al., 1989). Seychelles . - Buy this stock photo and explore similar images at Adobe Stock http://www.gbif.org/species. 19 (1), 107-128. http://science.dec.wa.gov.au/nuytsia. 52 (1), 59-69. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/taiwania. Newslett. Life cycle Annual . because of its spines and because it is not much liked. It is frost tender. Stem erect or usually ascending, 6-80 (sometimes up to 100) cm tall, glabrous to pubescent, pubescent especially upwards. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. It has been suggested that Amaranthus species were dispersed along trade routes between America, Europe and Asia. leptostachys, Amaranthus dubius var. Correll DS, Correll HB, 1982. Montpellier : 203 (1912). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 59(4):274-275. However, plants identified as A. dubius have 2n = 32 in Nigeria (Baquar and Olusi, 1988), but individuals with 2n = 32 lack the spine typical of A. spinosus (Grubben, 2004). 6/98.]. The green variety is practically indistinguishable from Amaranthus viridis. Amaranthus cruentus A. hybridus A. spinosus A. caudatus A. thunbergii, which are all indigenous to the country Description of the plant Mature plant Amaranth species are erect or spreading annuals with a rough or prickly appearance.

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